The Bone & Joint Health and Osteoporosis Center wants all people to learn as much about osteoporosis, and our website offers a plethora of information — much from the Surgeon General’s webpage on osteoporosis and The National Osteoporosis Foundation. Please take your time to learn about.
Ideal attendees may include patients who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, individuals who believe they may be at risk, or family members of an osteoporosis patient. Call 718-667-3577 or email Help@SpinePainNY.com for more information and appointments.
Our goal is to educate patients at an earlier age about bone health and osteoporosis.
Bones function as the skeleton of the human body, allow body parts to move and protect organs from impact damage. They also produce red and white blood cells.
Bone is living tissue that is constantly renewed throughout life, as old bone gets replaced with new. Osteoporosis occurs when too much bone is lost, too little new bone is produced, or both.
Children and teens make more bone than they lose, with peak bone mass usually reached in the early 20s. The denser the bones are at their peak mass, the less likely it is that osteoporosis will develop later in life. After bone mass peaks, bone production slows down but continues to about age 30. After that, bone mass shrinks about 1% annually. Certain factors can accelerate the loss. The rate at which bone density declines depends on several factors, such as age, gender, bone structure family history and lifestyle.
Strong bones begin in childhood. With good habits and medical attention when needed, we can have strong bones throughout our lives. People who have weak bones are at higher risk for fractures.
You can improve your bone health by getting enough calcium, vitamin D, and physical activity. If you have osteoporosis or another bone disease, your doctor can detect and treat it. This can help prevent painful fractures.
Broken bones are very painful at any age. For older people, weak bones can be deadly. One in five people with a hip fracture dies within a year of their injury. One in three adults who lived independently before their hip fracture remains in a nursing home for a least a year after their injury. Many others become isolated, depressed, or frightened to leave home because they fear they will fall.
At menopause, women experience a drastic decline in the hormone estrogen. The drop-in estrogen levels slows the replacement of old bone with new, resulting in a faster rate of bone loss. About ten years after the onset of menopause, the rapid bone loss subsides and the rate of loss returns to pre-menopausal levels. Even though the loss slows down, however, the formation of new bone does not increase. That is why postmenopausal women have a greater chance of a fracture.
Women who have early menopause (before age 40) have even greater risk of osteoporosis and fractures.
There are no symptoms in the early stages of osteoporosis. Bone loss occurs over a period of many years and sometimes the first evidence of it comes when a fracture occurs – most commonly in the hip, spine or wrist. If a bone fracture occurs more easily than one would expect, it may be a sign of osteoporosis.
Other possible indications are loss in height or stooped posture. There may be pain in the spine caused by compression fractures. The pain may occur suddenly or over a period of time.
Medical evaluation to diagnose osteoporosis may include one or more of the following:
If the bone density test shows early signs of bone loss it is called osteopenia. When bone loss becomes more severe, it is osteoporosis.
While osteoporosis is common as one ages, getting older doesn’t mean osteoporosis will develop.
Throughout life, eating a balanced diet and getting adequate amounts of calcium and Vitamin D from food and/or supplements helps to keep bones strong.
Supplements are only advised when the recommended amount of daily calcium cannot be obtained through diet. If your diet does not provide enough calcium, ask your doctor if calcium supplements are right for you.
Limit Caffeine & Alcohol: Coffee, tea and soft drinks with caffeine can decrease calcium absorption. Excess alcohol consumption has also been shown to have an adverse effect on bone health.
Exercise: Regular exercise makes bones and muscles stronger and helps to prevent bone loss. Both weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises can help prevent osteoporosis and promote the ability to stay active.
Weight-Bearing Exercise, which should be done at least three or four times a week, includes such activities as walking, jogging/running, dancing, high-impact aerobics, playing tennis, jumping rope, hiking and stair-climbing. Lower impact exercises can also help keep bones strong and are a safe alternative for people who cannot do high-impact exercises. Some examples of low-impact weight-bearing exercises are elliptical training machines, low-impact aerobics, stair-step machines and fast walking.
Muscle-Strengthening Exercises, such as lifting weights or using elastic exercise bands, cause skeletal muscle to pull against the bone, which results in the bone rebuilding and becoming denser. Muscle-strengthening exercises should be done two to three days per week.
Tai Chi can help improve balance and prevent falls; and posture exercises are good for reducing rounded shoulders, which decreases the chance of breaking a bone. Yoga and Pilates may be beneficial for some people – but before beginning either, a physical therapist should be consulted .
Note that too much exercise can be detrimental for women, however, because it can cause a drop in estrogen, which is needed for bone health.
Pharmacologic Treatment: The most common medications to prevent and treat osteoporosis are medicines that slow the loss of bone called antiresorptive medicines. These include bisphosphonates (Fosamax, Boniva, Actonel), calcitonin, estrogen, estrogen agonists/antagonists (SERM) and RANK ligand inhibitor (Prolia).
It is also recommended that the preventative measures listed above be adopted to preserve bone density as much as possible.
Tripping and falling are not just the result of getting older. However as you age, falls become much more dangerous and potentially fatal. As a patient, caregiver, or family member you need to know that most falls can be prevented; it is up to us to minimize the changes of it happening. Review the list below and by changing some small things in your daily life, you can lower the chances of falling for you or someone you love.
The Bone & Joint Health and Osteoporosis Center at The Spine & Pain Institute of New York has established the Center to provide comprehensive diagnosis, treatment and support for patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. It is a multi-disciplinary program under the medical direction of Board Certified Rheumatologist — Maggie Cadet, M.D.
Each patient is given a thorough medical examination and is interviewed to determine possible risk factors. Lab tests and a DEXA bone density scan may be recommended. Results are assessed, and an individual treatment plan is developed for each patient.
The treatment plan for patients who are diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis may include any of the following:
Monthly education, nutrition and exercise programs will begin soon in 2017. Follow us on Facebook for educational program updates.
To keep your bones strong, eat foods rich in calcium. Some people have trouble digesting the lactose found in milk and other dairy foods, including cheese and yogurt. Most supermarkets sell lactose-reduced dairy foods. Many nondairy foods are also calcium-rich.
|Help your bones. Choose foods that are high in calcium. Here are some examples.|
|Fortified oatmeal, 1 packet||350|
|Sardines, canned in oil, with edible bones, 3 oz.||324|
|Cheddar cheese, 1 ½ oz. shredded||306|
|Milk, nonfat, 1 cup||302|
|Milkshake, 1 cup||300|
|Yogurt, plain, low-fat, 1 cup||300|
|Soybeans, cooked, 1 cup||261|
|Tofu, firm, with calcium, ½ cup||204|
|Orange juice, fortified with calcium, 6 oz.||200–260 (varies)|
|Salmon, canned, with edible bones, 3 oz.||181|
|Pudding, instant (chocolate, banana, etc.) made with 2% milk, ½ cup||153|
|Baked beans, 1 cup||142|
|Cottage cheese, 1% milk fat, 1 cup||138|
|Spaghetti or lasagna, 1 cup||125|
|Frozen yogurt, vanilla, soft-serve, ½ cup||103|
|Ready-to-eat cereal, fortified with calcium, 1 cup||100–1000 (varies)|
|Cheese pizza, 1 slice||100|
|Fortified waffles (2)||100|
|Turnip greens, boiled, ½ cup||99|
|Broccoli, raw, 1 cup||90|
|Ice cream, vanilla, ½ cup||85|
|Soy or rice milk, fortified with calcium, 1 cup||80–500 (varies)|
Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. As you grow older, your need for vitamin D goes up. Vitamin D is made by your skin when you are in the sun. For many, especially seniors, getting enough vitamin D from sunlight is not practical. Almost all milk and some other foods are fortified with vitamin D. If you are not getting enough calcium and vitamin D in your diet, supplements can be bone savers.
Your body needs calcium and vitamin D.
|If this is your age, then you need this much calcium and vitamin D each day.|
|Calcium (mg)||Vitamin D (IU)|
|mg = milligrams; IU = International Units (40 IU = 1 mcg)
Source: Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2010.
|Infants 0 to 6 months||200||400|
|Infants 6 to 12 months||260||400|
|1 to 3 years||700||600|
|4 to 8 years||1,000||600|
|9 to 13 years||1,300||600|
|14 to 18 years||1,300||600|
|19 to 30 years||1,000||600|
|31 to 50 years||1,000||600|
|51- to 70-year-old males||1,000||600|
|51- to 70-year-old females||1,200||600|
|14 to 18 years, pregnant/lactating||1,300||600|
|19 to 50 years, pregnant/lactating||1,000||600|